Importance of system theory in social work
18.07.2020 | by Voodooshakar
Theories of Social Work Practice: The Systems Approach
While there are many theories in social work, systems theory is a unique way of addressing human behavior in terms of these multi-layered relationships and environments.
The theory is premised on the idea that an effective system is based on individual needs, rewards, expectations, and attributes of the people living in the system. Systems theory in social work is based on the idea that behavior is influenced by a variety of factors that work together as a system.
These factors include family, friends, social settings, economic class, and the environment at home. The theory posits that these and other factors influence how individuals think and actand therefore examining these social structures to find ways to correct ineffective parts or adapt for missing elements of a given system can positively impact behavior. The fields of psychology, communication theory and psychiatry influence modern social work systems theory. It is often applied to situations where many issues connect intricately, influencing one another in various ways.
Systems theory in social work is used in cases where contextual understandings of behavior will lead to the most appropriate practice interventions. Examples of issues that can be addressed include:. According to Systems Theory and Social Work by Steven Walker, inthere are three broad schools of interventions that can be identified.
They are:. Structural approaches: This type of intervention stems from the technique of observing the interactive patterns in a family or system, and then a structural approach would be taken to highlight problematic situations, find problem-solving solutions to interrupt them when they are happening, and then get the individual or family to try different ways of acting that lead to better outcomes. Strategic approaches: The focus with strategic interventions is on the everyday problematic interactions and solving them with properly applied cognitive thinking.
Often, perceptions people have about their problems influence how those issues are handled. Systemic approaches: This approach also called the Milan systemic model works with the whole family or system, rather than just the individual. The focus of this approach is to discover rules and ideologies that are sustaining dysfunctional patterns, then to encourage change in a way that avoids being perceived as blaming others within the system.
According to Systems Theory and Social Workwhile there are several approaches that can be taken to meet the needs of individual clients, there are a few elements that can are generally part of every implementation.
It is important not to take theoretical elements and concepts to level of abstraction, where they can cease to be useful. That said, several regular elements to systems theory implementation include:. Having a trained, licensed professional supervising therapy sessions is important. Social workers, family therapists, or registered therapists can offer feedback and suggestions, and screened observation to gain a different perspective to the social worker involved with the case.
Considered by some to be the most defining characteristic of social work practice, this element of system theory is an ecological approach to the problems presented. The social worker asks a series of questions that are linked to the context of the presenting problem as defined in familial, professional, public, socio-economic and cultural dynamics.
The focus is on looking at difficulties from other angles in order to understand unhealthy patterns, and then change or avoid them. This characteristic of systems-theory-based work assumes that problematic behavior is part of a reflexive, circular motion of events and actions. Spotting and addressing these circular processes effectively can provide a positive way to move forward.
This can help people get beyond the blaming or scapegoating behaviors that often stagger progress. Case studies for systems theory applications in social work provide valuable insight into professional findings that can help others exponentially.
Case studies provide real-world examples of how interventions can be applied, and help us better understand the interrelated factors that contribute to unhealthy actions. Jennifer shared with her counselor that she often felt rejected by other kids, and she wondered what was so wrong with her.
The counselor and Jennifer identified patterns in her life events that contributed to her feelings of sadness and anxiety. She saw her mother as frequently wanting Jennifer by her side, often complaining about her marriage. Jennifer felt sorry for her mother, and frustrated with having to spend so much time with her too. There were blowups. Then Jennifer would withdraw at school. Even though her parents were not willing to be involved, Jennifer made progress with her counselor anyway.
Her enhanced perspective regarding her familial relationships was possible, in part, due to the systems approach employed by her counselor. She was able to develop a healthier level of self-awareness and insight.
By doing this, they may gain a better understanding of the whole system in which the client lives.Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviour.
Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artificial intelligence Evolutionary robotics.
Reaction—diffusion systems Partial differential equations Dissipative structures Percolation Cellular automata Spatial ecology Self-replication Spatial evolutionary biology. Rational choice theory Bounded rationality Irrational behaviour. Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts which can be natural or human-made.
Every system is bounded by space and time, influenced by its environment, defined by its structure and purpose, and expressed through its functioning. A system may be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. Changing one part of a system may affect other parts or the whole system.
It may be possible to predict these changes in patterns of behavior. For systems that learn and adapt, the growth and the degree of adaptation depend upon how well the system is engaged with its environment. Some systems support other systems, maintaining the other system to prevent failure. The goals of systems theory are to model a system's dynamics, constraintsconditions, and to elucidate principles such as purpose, measure, methods, tools that can be discerned and applied to other systems at every level of nestingand in a wide range of fields for achieving optimized equifinality.
General systems theory is about developing broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles specific to one domain of knowledge. It distinguishes dynamic or active systems from static or passive systems. Active systems are activity structures or components that interact in behaviours and processes. Passive systems are structures and components that are being processed. For example, a program is passive when it is a disc file and active when it runs in memory.
The term "general systems theory" originates from Bertalanffy 's general systems theory GST. His ideas were adopted by others including Kenneth E. BouldingWilliam Ross Ashby and Anatol Rapoport working in mathematics, psychology, biology, game theory, and social network analysis. In sociology, systems thinking started earlier, in the 20th century. Stichweh states:  " Since its beginnings the social sciences were an important part of the establishment of systems theory Elements of systems thinking can also be seen in the work of James Clerk Maxwellin particular control theory.
OdumEugene Odum and is Fritjof Capra 's study of organizational theoryand in the study of management by Peter Sengein interdisciplinary areas such as Human Resource Development in the works of Richard A.Covid Update: We've taken precautionary measures to enable all staff to work away from the office.
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The aim of this assignment is to analyse my intervention with a service user and her family whilst on my day placement. Whilst on placement I critically explored the social work value base, having demonstrated how I worked within the framework of the social work process. I used a variety of intervention methods, however, I am going to examine the effectiveness of one method in detail, systems theory.
Before commencing this assignment I spoke to the service user, her family and placement agency, asking permission to write about my intervention with them and everyone agreed to this. I assured them of confidentiality, names have been anonymised, and no reports or confidential documents have been included. Biesteckcited in Dominelli, says confidentiality is a characteristic of the social work profession together with respect and self-determination.
The agency was part of the voluntary sector, located in an area of regeneration, with high levels of deprivation, poverty, and homelessness, being established because there was a recognition that the area was particularly needy due to high levels of unemployment, crime, lone parents, pensioners, poor housing, and people experiencing health and social problems. The agency contributes to alleviating some of the pressures of everyday living helping a diverse group, and targeting those who are most vulnerable, offering a varied support system.
The Importance Of The Systems Theory In Social Work
By providing free support and advice to the community the agency enables individuals to empower themselves to access a range of services putting them in touch with health, community care services, voluntary agencies and support groups. Listening and working in partnership with families, and young people, to provide support, enables development of opportunities and appropriate action plans to improve outcomes.
Using case work and one-to-one individuals are empowered to develop strategies and plans to deal with issues such as parenting, schooling, behaviour, debt, housing, mental health, relationship breakdown, benefit support and domestic violence. Practicing my role, I collaborated with social services, school, and other support networks giving a holistic service to my clients, which was important to achieve positive outcomes Trevithick, My intervention was with a year-old girl, who I will refer to as Amy, who had been referred by social services; her behaviour was causing concern due to relocation with her father and stepfamily.
Amy had previously lived with her mother, with whom she had a good relationship, however, she involved Amy in age inappropriate conversations, had depression, alcohol issues, and allowed Amy to witness scenes of domestic violence. For several months Amy had been living with her father and stepfamily, and was finding it difficult to adapt to her new living arrangements.
I did not attempt to include any extended family, the family being rather complex, as my main concern was to support Amy and her family to resolve their issues.
Please see appendix. I supported Amy and her family to adapt to their new living situation, my work including one-to-one support, family support, advocacy and mediation, counselling skills, negotiation, adapting strategies and interventions to enable the family to adjust, supporting their emotional well-being and allowing them to move forward.
My objectives were to resolve the conflict, address inappropriate behaviour, and support Amy with relationship issues with her father, boundary setting, and build her self-esteem.
However, after my initial assessment, it became clear that all the family needed support; therefore, my interventions would have to involve the family as a whole.
My work involved implementing positive strategies to support relationship building, empowering the family to change and become accustomed to the new family unit. I worked within the guidelines of Every Child Matters, green paper publishedunderpinned by The Children Act, Parker and Bradley, in order to recognise areas of need, and work with the family to try and achieve positive outcomes.
It is important to identify any potential danger or risk before making home visits, for yourself and colleagues, Trevithick, so in order to avoid mistakes I adhered to the lone worker policy of the agency, checking this with my work based supervisor. For all visits I detailed the address, time schedule, base contact, making sure to have my mobile on me at all times, and was responsible for entering details onto the agency case management database.
Assessment is a continual process, and changes with circumstances, so is central to making a difference.A lot of the social work theory taught at university is taken from psychology, law, philosophy, education and even management.
These theories attempt to explain human behaviour, relationships and social issues. But the theory we were taught is closely linked to everyday practice. Whilst on placement in a child protection department, I had weekly supervision sessions with my practice educator. This is where I would chat about my caseload and relate ideas and theory, taught at university, into practice.
Reflection on Systems Theory Intervention
At times this questioning and constant reviewing theories felt a bit intense. But it was also hugely important to my professional development as a social worker. As a child protection social worker I have to make professional judgements about risks and needs.
I have to use my power to make sure whatever happens is in the best interest of the child. It is vital, therefore, that I am able to justify the decisions I make. Assessments must be made by looking at evidence, and not uninformed judgements. Even better, if we can find a theory to explain why an action has resulted in a particular behaviour, then as social workers we will have more understanding of the issues affecting service-users lives. Even if we find a theory that appears to work, we still need to remain open-minded and continue with our process of reflection.
Social work practice is part of a process of evidence building where ideas have to be adapted or abandoned in the light of changing circumstances or new information. Each child, each parent, each situation is different.
Different approaches are needed to suit different circumstances. No single theory can explain everything. As a newly qualified social worker, having an in depth knowledge of theories will hopefully allow me to have a greater sensitivity to the needs of service-users, as well as stop me from taking anything at face value.
Instead, I should always probe beneath the surface. The use of theory will help me develop into an open and flexible social worker, who is committed to defensible rather defensive practice. Join the Social Care Network to read more pieces like this. Follow us on Twitter GdnSocialCare and like us on Facebook to keep up with the latest social care news and views. Topics Social Care Network Social life blog. Work practices Children blogposts. Reuse this content.
Most popular.Learning the theories behind psychological practices can be a valuable tool for any social worker. Understanding why people act the way they do can be a step toward helping them break bad habits and exhibit behavior that helps them succeed in life.
Social workers should familiarize themselves with five different psychological theories that play a role in social work practice. Posited by Erik Erikson inpsychosocial theory draws on and is influenced by the earlier work of Sigmund Freud.
However, psychosocial theory focuses on the ways that individuals are shaped by and react to their social environment. These social crises include trust versus mistrust, which occurs in infancy and informs how an individual trusts; industry versus inferiority, which informs qualities like work ethic, competency and self-worth; and intimacy versus isolation, which provides the basis for love.
Started by Freud and continued in the work of Erikson and others, psychodynamic theory seeks to understand the reasons why people behave the way they behave.
In psychodynamic theory, the id comprises the primal drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain; the superego consists of societal expectations, social mores and conscience; and the ego tries to find realistic ways to seek pleasure and avoid pain, balancing the two. The unconscious mind the id and the superego are in constant conflict with the conscious mind the egoand this creates anxiety and causes an individual to adopt defense mechanisms to better deal with the stress of inner conflict. Transfer up to 80 credit hours and earn your degree in a convenient online format.
That is, the theory uses saints, artists, heroes and other similar figures — people who have strong ego identities that others can strive to emulate — as aspirational examples. Transpersonal theory is a study of human development, and its goal is to help people develop stronger ego identities as they grow older, becoming more like the saints and heroes they aspire to be. The theory is spiritual as well as psychological and, though it lacks the credibility of other fields of psychology, it can be a useful way to help a client overcome adversity and develop good habits.
In social learning theoryAlbert Bandura builds upon B. Behavioral psychology focuses on the effect of the environment and reinforcement on behavior, but Bandura adds two important distinctions: that mediating processes happen between stimulus and response, and that individuals can learn behavior through observation. Social learning theory puts forth the idea that people often model behavior that they observe in their environment, particularly when they observe that behavior in those similar to themselves and when that behavior is reinforced in others.
For example, a young boy observing behaviors in his father that are rewarded by society — earning a living, displaying little emotion, fixing things with his hands — is likely to emulate those behaviors. If those behaviors are then rewarded, they become reinforced and the individual is more likely to repeat them.
This, of course, can happen with problematic behaviors as well. An individual who observes a model treating others badly and being rewarded for it may follow the same path. Social workers can use social learning theory to discern the person a client might be using as a behavioral model and use that information to help correct destructive behavior. Systems theory states that behavior is influenced by a variety of factors that work together as a system.
Seeking to help correct missing or ineffective parts of that system can have a positive impact on behavior. The reverse, of course, is also true. In one case study, a client was engaging in risky behaviors such as drug abuse and unprotected sex. This led the client to self-medicate with drugs when things went poorly and also provided a poor social model for relationships and little emotional support.
This may take the form of providing positive role models, therapy or other services to help create a more supportive system for the individual. Campbellsville University offers online social work degrees that teach students the skills they need to excel as social workers.
Coursework for the Bachelor of Social Work and Master of Social Work includes psychological theories, knowledge of human rights and diversity, research methods, community development, grant writing and field work. Learn in a dynamic and engaging online environment that allows you to advance your career on your schedule. Earn your Social Work degree online!
Learn more. Share on Twitter Facebook LinkedIn.In New Zealand, social policy is about trying to ensure those in society who have less by getting help through different resources and services. A reoccurring function that keeps arising within New Zealand society, however, is the unemployment factor, as it has lead to recent welfare reforms. Due to the cause of people being unemployed it then leads them to a welfare dependency which they then become more reliant on benefits and tend to pass this easy knowledge on to the next generation.
Social work is a vast field with complex and numerous factors that can create confusion on what exactly the social work profession is. Many theories and values have been assigned to social work based scientific development and studies, assumptions and inherent beliefs, which can only add to the chaotic understanding of the profession.
Social Learning Theory: Albert Banduraa psychologist, proposed social learning theory to integrate the behaviorism with the cognitive theory to explain why people behave in a certain way, irrespective of the type of environment they are in. Bandura tried to integrate the behavior, cognition, and the environment to postulate the social learning theory. Many academicians have seen Bandura as the neo-behaviorist theorist positivist despite the fact that he believed in self-help, self-regulation.
Theories of Social Inequality In briefly evaluating the classical and modern explanations of social inequality, it is essential that we step outside the realm of our own lives, class position, and discard any assumptions we might have about the nature of inequality. This process of critical pedagogy allows us to view our world, not from our perspective, but from a wider, more critical analysis of inequality's nature. Also, it should be considered within this wider perspective that all theories.
I will be discussing the social theorist and their ideas and perspective in this paper. Though there are many social theorists that influence sociology I will only be discussing the theorist that we heavily focused on with in the course.
The roles of social theorist such as Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and Auguste Comte played an essential role in the later development of sociology.
The social conditions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were of the greatest significance. Therefore management refers to the development of bureaucracy that originates its importance from the need for co-ordination, strategic planning and directing and controlling large and complex decision-making processes. Management is concerned in the key areas of: administration, problem solving, organisational leadership and human resource.
These papers deal with the world systems theory of Wallerstien's article as well as the other specialists' criticisms on it. They bring up basically three main ideas, which first off, include the significant role of the periphery in the core- periphery relationship.
Secondly, the need to focus on internal and local affects on interrelations between different polities instead of concentrating on the external and generalized role of interaction. Lastly, they demand a model that is diversified enough. Although these schools, or theories, developed historical sequence, later ideas have not replaced earlier ones. Instead, each new school has tended to complement or coexist with previous ones. Theory recognizing the role that management plays in an.
By definition theory is a proposal fostered to support a set of observations, a recognized statement of tentative knowledge depicting how various thoughts and concepts are connected to each other Merriam-Webster, During this assignment I will expand my knowledge on the topic of nursing theory by explaining the importance of nursing theory.Without knowledge of theory and ethics, social workers are just service administrators, argues University of Hertfordshire professor Brian Littlechild.
Some programmes do this very well, with role-plays, etc. Such enhanced skills training in qualifying programmes is recommended by the Social Work Reform Board. We need both, and to know how to use the interplay between them in our practice.
Register Login. Search for:. Jobs Live Inform. Theory is as important as practice for social work students Without knowledge of theory and ethics, social workers are just service administrators, argues Professor Brian Littlechild September 6, in Education and trainingStudents.
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